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Table of Contents

    1. Darwin and the Giant Tortoises
    2. Evidence of Evolution in the Rocks
    3. Layers of Rocks give us clues to their age
    4. How life started?
    5. Interpretation of the Miller-Urey Experiment
    6. How valid was the Miller Urey Experiment?
    7. DNA the blueprint for life
    8. Oxygenating the World
    9. Protista - basic unicellular organisms
    10. Protista Diversity
    11. The first Multicellular Organisms?
    12. Ctenophores and Cnidarians - first organism with real structure
    13. Cnidarians and the Fossil Record
    14. Coral Reefs under threat
    15. Test Yourself
    16. Assignments
    1. Fossil History of Marine Invertebrates
    2. Platyhelminthes: the building block for other invertebrates
    3. Platyhelminthes: a surprisingly diverse group
    4. Annelids: the first segmented animals
    5. Brachiopods: developing a bivalve shell
    6. The first Molluscs
    7. The Molluscs diversified
    8. Molluscs: Feeding mechanisms
    9. Molluscs: Evolving and keeping the shell
    10. Molluscs: Secondary loss of the shell
    11. Echinoderms: Penta-symmetrical creatures of the oceans
    12. Echinoderms: A hydrostatic structure
    13. Echinoderms diversity: variations on a theme
    14. Arthropoda: the most successful animal phylum
    15. Arthropoda: Segmentation the successful formula
    16. Early Arthropods: The fossil record
    17. Living descendents of the Trilobites
    18. Crustaceans: Arthropod success in the sea
    19. Arthropod Exoskeleton: Evolving to occupy land
    20. Test Yourself
    21. Assignments
    1. Plants: Fertilization and dispersal, the first issues
    2. Mosses: Possibly the earliest land plants?
    3. Fossils of the earliest land plants
    4. What were the earliest land animals?
    5. Living of Land: Issues of reproduction
    6. Land plants: Making their mark
    7. A Forest Environment
    8. Insects: The greatest conquerors of all?
    9. Land Plants: Still working on the reproduction issue
    10. Cycads: Getting to grips with the reproduction on land
    11. Conifers: A successful formula
    12. Earliest plant defences against herbivores
    13. Plants and Insects find "mutual benefit"
    14. Beetle pollination
    15. Plants learn to manipulate
    16. The most bizarre pollination systems?
    17. Total dependence: Yuccas and Moths
    18. Test Yourself
    19. Assignments
    1. A Tripartite body plan
    2. Chitin: A secrete ingredient for success?
    3. Issues with an Exoskeleton
    4. A "Larval Stage" leads to success
    5. Larva: Clothed in silk
    6. Metamorphosis
    7. An insect's first flying lessons
    8. Insects: Finding your soul mate
    9. An Insect's approach to rearing your young
    10. Insects: Limitations for size
    11. Insect's approach to size matters
    12. Chemical Communication
    13. Establishing a new colony
    14. The termite towers
    15. Wasp and Bee nests
    16. Dance of the bees
    17. Insect and plant cohabit
    18. Imperialism- Insect style
    19. Test Yourself
    20. Assignments
    1. Free-living chordates
    2. Fossil evidence for the first chordates
    3. A jawless predator
    4. Ostracoderms - an extinct group with heavy armour
    5. Protofish and internal bony skeletons
    6. Developing some backbone
    7. Re-inventing the cartilage skeleton
    8. Sharks and Mantas
    9. Swimbladders: refinement
    10. Test yourself
    11. Assignments
    1. The conception of lungs
    2. Possible ancestors
    3. Amphibians: The limitations
    4. A variety of habitats
    5. Colonizing the land
    6. A burrowing existence
    7. The accomplished jumpers
    8. The sticky tongue
    9. Sound production
    10. Amphibians: Mating
    11. A terrestrial environment for breeding
    12. Protecting the young
    13. Marsupial frogs
    14. Parental care: A step further
    15. Brooding in the stomach
    16. Effects of climatic conditions
    17. Moisture and development
    18. The water-holding frog
    19. Test Yourself
    20. Assignments
    1. Issues: Ectothermy vs Endothermy
    2. Breeding mechanisms of the ancestral reptile
    3. Skull structure
    4. The Anapsids
    5. The Diapsids
    6. The Synapsids
    7. First dinosaur characteristics
    8. Dinosaur fossils
    9. Gigantic herbivores and carnivores
    10. Temperature regulation limits energy use
    11. The beginning of the end for the kings
    12. Impressive parental care
    13. Conquering various living environments
    14. The flight of the dinosaur
    15. The Pterosaur: The take-off
    16. The Ptesosaurs: Not just a gliding motion
    17. The extinction
    18. Mammals' role in extinction
    19. Change in climate
    20. Crocodiles
    21. Crocodiles: Social life
    22. The Order Chelonia: Modified
    23. The lizard
    24. Modifying the scales
    25. Limb reduction
    26. Snakes
    27. Snakes: Making waves
    28. Snakes: The predator
    29. Snakes: Nurturing the young
    30. Snakes: The nocturnal hunter
    31. Test Yourself
    32. Assignments
    1. Claws for climbing
    2. Tree-perching birds
    3. Fossils of bird-like dinosaurs
    4. Weight reduction by birds
    5. The basic bird plan of structure
    6. Bill structure: Evolving
    7. Feathers: Differentiation and adaptation
    8. The structure of feathers
    9. Feather coloration: Melanins and carotenoids
    10. Feather Differentiation of plumage
    11. Feathers: Specialized
    12. The Birds of Paradise
    13. Courtship: Behavioural patterns
    14. Birds: Copulation
    15. Incubating the eggs
    16. Protecting the eggs
    17. Precocial and altricial chicks
    18. The relationship between the anatomy and flying
    19. Flight: Speed and distance
    20. Migration: A semi-annual event
    21. Losing flight
    22. Test Yourself
    23. Assignments
    1. The Spiny Echidna
    2. The loss of teeth
    3. Absorbing heat
    4. An endothermic metabolism
    5. Mammals: A polyphyletic origin
    6. The earliest true mammal
    7. The Opossums: The pouch
    8. Caring for the young
    9. Marsupial fossils
    10. Carnivorous marsupials
    11. The splitting world
    12. Evidence supporting continental drifting
    13. An alternative method of nourishing the young
    14. Placental mammals vs Marsupials
    15. Marsupials: Opportunity to evolve
    16. Survival today
    17. Marsupials and placental mammals: A resemblance
    18. Major differences
    19. The rat kangaroo
    20. Kangaroo: Escaping predators
    21. Kangaroo: The teeth
    22. Kangaroo: Reproduction
    23. The effect of drought on reproduction
    24. The placental mammals dominate
    25. The placenta
    26. The mammalian sexual cycle
    27. Immunological rejection
    28. Placental mammals: Success
    29. Test Yourself
    30. Assignments
    1. Dinosaur domination
    2. Various insect-eating mammals
    3. Shrews: Characteristics
    4. The Mole: Going underground
    5. Mole tunnels as traps
    6. Insectivores: A sticky tongue
    7. The pongolins
    8. Pongolins: Protection
    9. The armadillos: Characteristics
    10. Various species of armadillo
    11. Specialist ant-eaters: Lack of teeth
    12. Taking to the skies
    13. The Colugo: Gliding
    14. Bats: Flapping flight
    15. Bats: Saving weight
    16. Bats: Echo location
    17. Bats: Sonar equipment
    18. Methods for avoiding predation by bats
    19. Bats: Diet
    20. Meat-eating and fish-eating bats
    21. The vampire bats
    22. The Yellow-eared Bat
    23. Cetacean fossils
    24. Whales: An aquatic existence
    25. Whales: Adapting to swimming life
    26. The diet of whales and the sounds of dolphins
    27. Dolphins: A language
    28. Whales: A song
    29. Evolving communities
    30. Test Yourself
    31. Assignments
    1. Plant eaters: The teeth and digestion
    2. Elephants: Aiding digestion
    3. Compensation by plants
    4. Ruminants
    5. Animals prepare for food shortage
    6. The hibernating dormouse
    7. Flying squirrels
    8. Monkeys: Coordination development
    9. The Sloth: Characteristics
    10. The Sloth: Mating and predators
    11. The forest floor: Vegetation
    12. The large herbivore
    13. A solitary life
    14. Specialized meat-eaters
    15. Grass: Highly advanced
    16. The spread of the grassland
    17. Smaller is better
    18. Mole rats: Safety in the burrows
    19. Mole rats: Teamwork
    20. Prairie dogs: Organized social systems
    21. Prairie dogs: Selective cultivation
    22. The viscacha
    23. Placental migration
    24. Proto-horses: Lengthening the legs
    25. Proto-horses: The teeth and skull
    26. Descendants of the forest dwelling antelopes
    27. Antelope: Safety in herds
    28. Breeding arrangements
    29. The improved predator
    30. Lions: Hunting
    31. Hyenas: Communication and hunting
    32. Hyenas go zebra hunting
    33. Test Yourself
    34. Assignments
    1. An ancestor to the primates
    2. The Ring-tailed lemur
    3. The male Ring-tailed lemur: The use of scent
    4. The Ring-tail: Time in trees
    5. Infant lemurs
    6. Sifakas
    7. The Indris
    8. The nocturnal lemurs
    9. The Aye-aye
    10. Competing with monkeys
    11. The Loris: Sign posting
    12. The Tarsier
    13. Monkeys: Sight is key
    14. Monkeys: The use of colourful displays and sound
    15. Monkeys: Anatomical features
    16. Scent in communication
    17. Marmosets
    18. Adapting to great weight
    19. Prehensile tails
    20. The adaptable Macaque monkey
    21. Macaques: Behavioural patterns
    22. Bi-pedalism
    23. The Orang Utan
    24. The Orang Utan: Supporting the great weight
    25. The Orang Utan: It's repertoire
    26. The Orang Utan: Solitude and size
    27. The Gibbons
    28. Gibbons: Family life
    29. Gorillas: The use of the arms
    30. Gorillas: Family groups
    31. Similarities between Gorillas and humans
    32. Gorillas: A placid existence
    33. Chimpanzees: Their diet
    34. Chimpanzees: Maternal support
    35. Chimpanzees: A friendly gesture
    36. Chimpanzees: The toolmakers
    37. New situations lead to greater change
    38. Test yourself
    39. Assignments
    1. Characteristics of plains-living apes
    2. Development of ape men
    3. Homo erectus: Adaptation
    4. Homo erectus: Toolmaker and hunter
    5. Homo erectus: Methods of communication
    6. Recognizing one another
    7. Gestures: Providing information
    8. Homo erectus: Increase and spread
    9. A changing climate
    10. Homo sapiens
    11. Culture and cultural identities
    12. Test Yourself
    13. Assignments

Test Yourself


Two thousand years ago the number of Homo sapiens amounted to about?

a) 3 million
b) 2 hundred million
c) 3 hundred million
d) 3 hundred and thirty million
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Humans evolved from ape-like creatures about the size of:

a) Chimpanzees
b) Orang-Utans
c) Monkeys
d) Gibbons
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The jaw of the Ape-men:

a) became bigger
b) became smaller
c) stayed the same
d) changed shape completely
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What was the centre of Homo erectus' gestural communication?

a) Their faces
b) Their hands
c) Their feet
d) Their whole body
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In Europe it became increasingly cold and with no protetion of fur most creatures would have:

a) stayed
b) adapted
c) used tools to make coverings for their bodies
d) move to warmer parts or died out.
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Humans were descendents of a forest-living ape widespread in Africa, Europe and Asia about:

a) 2 million years ago
b) 10 million years ago
c) 6 million years ago
d) 20 million years ago
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The brain of the first ape-men and the gorilla were similar about:

a) 500 cubic centimetres
b) 100 cubic centimetres
c) 650 cubic centimetres
d) 200 cubic centimetres
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The Southern Apes had large sharp teeth with shearing blades.

a) True
b) False
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Ape-men had become tool-makers.

a) True
b) False
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The feet of the ape-men became more suited to running.

a) True
b) False
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Evidence suggest that the hunting by Homo erectus were premeditated and they were armed before they found their prey.

a) True
b) False
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Human beings sense of smell is more well-developed than their sight.

a) True
b) False
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Human beings hunted furred animals, stripped the skin from their dead bodies and used it for themselves.

a) True
b) False
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Hyenas, humans and wolves distinguish each other by smell.

a) True
b) False
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Human beings are the only creatures to have painted representational pictures.

a) True
b) False
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When the temperature became too cold humans found shelter in caves.

a) True
b) False
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Fill in the missing words:

has suddenly become the most numerous of all large . years ago, there were about individuals in the world. They were ingenious, communicative and resourceful, but they seemed, as a , to be subject to the same laws and restrictions which govern the numbers of other animals.

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Word bank: Homo sapiens, Ten thousand, animals, species, ten million

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Fill in the missing words:

The hands and of the Southern Ape resembled those of their tree climbing ancestors and were very good at grasping things with on the digits, not claws. The were not particularly well suited to running. Their also show clear signs of their forest dwelling past. The , as can be judged from the sockets, were well developed by contrast their sense of smell would have been relatively poor since the nasal clefts were short.

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Word bank: eyes, feet, limbs, nails, skulls

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Fill in the missing words:

If the ape-men were threatened by they could defend themselves by hurling and wielding sticks. Faced with a , they might not have been able to open it with their as a lion could do, but they could cut it open using the sharp of a stone, held in the hand.

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Word bank: carcass, edge, enemies, stones, teeth

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Fill in the missing words:

The bodies of one line of ape-men became better to the plains-living life. The feet became more suited to , lost their ability to and acquired a slight . The hips changed, the joint moved towards the centre of the pelvis to balance the upright torso.

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Word bank: adapted, arch, grasp, running

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Fill in the missing words:

Ape-men had to a height of over a metre and a half and were Homo erectus, Upright Man. Homo erectus was a much more tool-maker than previous ape-men. Their stones were carefully with a tapering point at one end and a sharp edge on either side, and were of a size that fitted neatly into the hand.

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Word bank: called, grown, shaped, skilled

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Fill in the missing words:

Homo erectus had another medium of at their disposal - gestures - and we can make some confident as to what they were and what they meant. Human beings have more separate in their face than any other animal. They make it possible to move the various elements in a great variety of that no other creature can match.

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Word bank: communication, guesses, muscles, ways

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Fill in the missing words:

We take it for granted that all our faces are very from one another yet this is a very characteristic among animals. If individuals are to cooperate in an team in which each person has their own responsibility then it is l for those taking part to be able to one from another immediately.

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Word bank: crucia, different, distinguish, organised, unusual

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Fill in the missing words:

It is probable that they for roots and berries, nuts and fruit, and despite the inadequacies of their anatomy, they became . The structure of their hip bones shows that they were well onto to evolving and being able to survive on the African plains. Although these ape men were small, and slow, compared with the predators of the plains, they were able to compete with the other predators.

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Word bank: bipedalism, defenceless, excavated, gathered, hunters

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Fill in the missing words:

Along the great limestone valleys of central such as the Dordogne and in the foothills of the , the cliffs are riddled with caves. From the archaeological evidence there appears to be no significant difference between these people who lived in the caves of France 35 000 years ago and . , accordingly, have given these people the same name as they use, somewhat immodestly, for all modern humans - Homo sapiens, .

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Word bank: Anthropologists, France, Pyrenees, Wise Man, ourselves

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Which two animals also have the ability to use and make tools?

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Which animals are very formidable creatures with powerful fanged jaws?

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Where in southwest Kenya was evidence of one of homo erectus' successful hunts unearthed?

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Match the following.

a) The forehead of Homo erectus leant more toward this shape.
b) The shape of the pelvis of Homo erectus.
c) The torso of the ape-men was this way.
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Match the following;

a) The teeth were small and rounded and not well suited to grinding grass or pulping fibrous twigs nor did they have shearing blades.
b) They are creatures with powerful fanged jaws.
c) They were able to use and make tools.
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