Development of ape men
The structure of their hip bones shows that they were well onto to evolving bipedalism and being able to survive on the Africanplains. Although these ape men were small defenceless and slow, compared with the predators of the plains, they were able to compete with the other predators. The ape men had hands with a precise and powerful grip, developed by their ancestors in response to the demands of a tree climbing life. If they stood upright, these hands could be ready at all times to compensate for the lack of teeth and claws. If the ape-men were threatened by enemies they could defend themselves by hurling stones and wielding sticks. Faced with a carcass, they might not have been able to open it with their teeth as a lion could do, but they could cut it open using the sharp edge of a stone, held in the hand. They could even take one stone, strike it against another and so shape it. Stones deliberately struck in such a way have facets on them that are quite different from those on stone that have been chipped by rolling in streams or split by frost. They can thus be identified and many such have been found associated with the skeletons of ape-men. The animals had become tool-makers. So ape-men claimed a permanent place for themselves in the community of animals on the plains.