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Table of Contents

  1. Introduction: AIACC: Climate Change and Conservation Planning
    1. Chapter1: Evidence for climate change
      1. Chapter 2: Global circulation models
        1. Chapter 4: Biodiversity responses to past changes in climate
          1. Slide 1: Biodiversity responses to past changes in climate
          2. Slide 2: Climate change is nothing new (Milankovitch theory)
          3. Slide 3: We live in an unusual, stable climate
          4. Slide 4: How do we know all this?
          5. Slide 5: Ice cores can tell us about prehistoric climate conditions
          6. Slide 6: Temperature change
          7. Slide 7 : Carbon dioxide
          8. Slide 8: How might these changes have affected biodiversity?
          9. Slide 9 : Migration
          10. Slide 10: Global features, Last Glacial Maximum (21-18 kbp)
          11. Slide 11: Residual plant populations in the Western Cape
          12. Slide 12: Historic pollen distributions
          13. Slide 13: Current biodiversity reveals the imprint of these changes
          14. Slide 14: Winter Rainfall
          15. Slide 15: Climate reconstruction - Temperature
          16. Slide 16: Climate reconstruction - Rainfall
          17. Slide 17: Climate space modeling, bioclimatic modeling, niche modelling
          18. Slide 18: Fynbos bioclimatic envelope
          19. Slide 19 : Succulent Karoo bioclimatic envelope
          20. Slide 20: The succulent Karoo biome advanced as temperature increased
          21. Slide 21: Pollen evidence?
          22. Slide 22: Centres of endemism and stable climate
          23. Slide 23: The Knersvlakte
          24. Slide 24: Karoo plants evolved incredibly fast
          25. Slide 25: Recent diversity is huge
          26. Slide 26: Mechanistic modelling
          27. Slide 27: Factors of a mechanistic model
          28. Slide 28 : DVM - dynamic vegetation model
          29. Slide 29: Sheffield DGVM
          30. Slide 30: Sheffield DGVM (Woodward)
          31. Slide 31: The role of fire in Savanna ecosystems
          32. Slide 32: Global distribution of fire in 1998
          33. Slide 33: CO2 crisis for C3, woody plants
          34. Slide 34: Low CO2 limits tree growth relatively more than herbaceous plant growth
          35. Slide 35: Under a fire regime, woody plants over a certain height may survive burning
          36. Slide 36: Simulated effects of CO2 on stem height (Mesic savanna)
          37. Slide 37: Implications and tests
          38. Slide 38: Modelled tree cover response to CO2
          39. Slide 39: Wonderkrater pollen Scott, L. (2002)
          40. Slide 40: Empirical experiments
          41. Slide 41: Low CO2 discriminates against woody plants
          42. Slide 42: High CO2 boosts productivity
          43. Slide 43: CO2 level controls, carbon investment in defenses
          44. Slide 44: Plant response
          45. Slide 45 : Conclusions
          46. Slide 46: Test yourself
          47. Slide 47: Links to other chapters
        2. Chapter 5: Adaptation of biodiversity to climate change
          1. Chapter 6: Approaches to niche-based modelling
            1. Chapter 7: Ecosystem function modelling
              1. Chapter 8: Climate change implications for conservation planning
                1. Chapter 9: The economic costs of conservation response options for climate change
                  1. Course Resources
                    1. Practical: Conservation for Climate Change
                      1. Tests to Assess your Understanding
                        1. How to run a GAM model in R

                          Slide 10: Global features, Last Glacial Maximum (21-18 kbp)

                          Duration: 00:00:50

                          Notes:

                          The world looked considerably different over the last glacial maximum. The extent of icefields (dark blue) and permafrost (green) in the northern hemisphere is considerably larger than today. The tropical forests are considerably reduced in extent, and, much of what is now tropical forest was then savanna grasslands. These dramatic differences were caused by as little a change as 5 degrees less than present.