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Table of Contents

  1. Introduction: AIACC: Climate Change and Conservation Planning
    1. Chapter1: Evidence for climate change
      1. Chapter 2: Global circulation models
        1. Slide 1: Global Circulation Models - the basis for climate change science
        2. Slide 2: Weather prediction
        3. Slide 3: NWP vs climate models
        4. Slide 4: NWP vs climate models (cont)
        5. Slide 5: How does the climate work?
        6. Slide 6: The atmosphere I: vertical structure
        7. Slide 7: The atmosphere II: energy budget
        8. Slide 8: The atmosphere III: Horizontal transfers
        9. Slide 9: The oceans
        10. Slide 10: Biosphere
        11. Slide 11: The geosphere
        12. Slide 12 : Different types of climate models
        13. Slide 13: Energy balance models
        14. Slide 14: Radiative-convective models
        15. Slide 15: Statistical-dynamical models
        16. Slide 16: Global circulation models
        17. Slide 17: Contemporary GCMs: an outline
        18. Slide 18: Climatic processes modelled in a GCM
        19. Slide 19: Flux adjustments
        20. Slide 20: How many GCMs are there?
        21. Slide 21: Use of GCMs
        22. Slide 22: Climatic forcing
        23. Slide 23: The effects of current radiative forcings
        24. Slide 24: IPCC future scenarios
        25. Slide 25: Development scenarios (cont).
        26. Slide 26: Future radiative forcings depend on response
        27. Slide 27: GCM model responses
        28. Slide 28: GCM outputs for 2100 (I)
        29. Slide 29: GCM outputs for 2100 (II)
        30. Slide 30: Linear and non linear responses
        31. Slide 31: Examples of non-linear changes
        32. Slide 32: Conclusion
        33. Slide 33: Test yourself
        34. Slide 34 Links to other chapters
      2. Chapter 4: Biodiversity responses to past changes in climate
        1. Chapter 5: Adaptation of biodiversity to climate change
          1. Chapter 6: Approaches to niche-based modelling
            1. Chapter 7: Ecosystem function modelling
              1. Chapter 8: Climate change implications for conservation planning
                1. Chapter 9: The economic costs of conservation response options for climate change
                  1. Course Resources
                    1. Practical: Conservation for Climate Change
                      1. Tests to Assess your Understanding
                        1. How to run a GAM model in R

                          Slide 10: Biosphere

                          Duration: 00:01:18


                          The biosphere is the sum total of all life on the planet. Whilst it clearly is a component of terrestrial processes, it is useful to consider it as a separate system.

                          The biosphere affects the albedo of the planet's surface considerably. Bare ground (desert) has an albedo of 0.3, whilst coniferous forests are generally between 0.09 to 0.15, absorbing far more solar radiation.

                          The biosphere also affects the fluxes of certain greenhouse gases. Whilst terrestrial vegetation can fix a certain amount of carbon in it's structure, many species of plankton utilise CO2 in the formation of their carbonate shells. When these plankton die, their shells sink to the ocean bottom, effectively removing it from the system, reducing the atmospheric concentration of gases by at least fourfold.

                          The biosphere also generates large amounts of aerosols such as spores, viruses, dust, bacteria and pollen that scatter and reflect incoming radiation.

                          Primary productivity in the oceans also generates dimethyl sulphides, which oxidise in the air to form small salt nuclei around which droplets form. These are responsible to a large extent for cloud formation over the ocean.