Slide 11: Types of cost
A quick assessment of the types of cost that have to be considered when looking at the total economic value of conservation options.
The first type of cost is that of land acquisition. This involves the buying of land, and of course, the cost of the land differs according to the use to which it has historically and is currently being put. Operating costs for a protected area network are highly variable, and include salaries, field allowances, equipment, transport and maintenance costs. It also includes provisions for senior field staff and research staff, who necessarily command higher salaries or consultancy fees. The capital requirements apply only to new reserves, and include all manner of infrastructure, as well as the costs of rehabilitation of newly-purchased land. Finally, the costs of ex-situ conservation include the costs of both gene banking and seed banking. No assessment of botanical gardens or zoos were made, because it is unlikely that these are options that can readily be embarked upon at this late date, and established institutions do not have much capacity to expand.