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Table of Contents

  1. Introduction: AIACC: Climate Change and Conservation Planning
    1. Chapter1: Evidence for climate change
      1. Slide 1: Introduction: the evidence for anthropogenic climate change
      2. Slide 2: Climate variation
      3. Slide 3 : Climate change
      4. Slide 4: What are we looking for?
      5. Slide 5: Sources of data - instrumental
      6. Slide 6: Temperature
      7. Slide 7: Palaeoclimate reconstruction from proxy data
      8. Slide 8: Palaeoclimatological time scale
      9. Slide 9: Proxy data sources: Ice cores
      10. Slide 10: Proxy data sources: Dendroclimatology
      11. Slide 11: Proxy data sources: Oceanic sediments
      12. Slide 12: Proxy data sources: Other
      13. Slide 13: The role of climate models
      14. Slide 14: Evidence for change
      15. Slide 15: Thermal indicators: Glacial melting
      16. Slide 16: Thermal indicators: Sea ice
      17. Slide 17: Thermal indicators: permafrost
      18. Slide 18: Thermal indicators: Sea level change
      19. Slide 19: Thermal indicators: Sea temperatures
      20. Slide 20: Is oceanic circulation changing?
      21. Slide 21: The greenhouse effect
      22. Slide 22: Climate change forcings
      23. Slide 23: Greenhouse gases: methane
      24. Slide 24: Greenhouse gases: nitrous oxide
      25. Slide 25: Greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide
      26. Slide 26: Greenhouse gases: others
      27. Slide 27: Aerosols
      28. Slide 28: Sulphates and nitrates
      29. Slide 29:Thermal indicators: global air temperature
      30. Slide 30: Changes in precipitation
      31. Slide 31: Climate change indicators: extreme weather
      32. Slide 32: Conclusions?
      33. Slide 33:Test yourself
      34. Slide 34: Links to other chapters
    2. Chapter 2: Global circulation models
      1. Chapter 4: Biodiversity responses to past changes in climate
        1. Chapter 5: Adaptation of biodiversity to climate change
          1. Chapter 6: Approaches to niche-based modelling
            1. Chapter 7: Ecosystem function modelling
              1. Chapter 8: Climate change implications for conservation planning
                1. Chapter 9: The economic costs of conservation response options for climate change
                  1. Course Resources
                    1. Practical: Conservation for Climate Change
                      1. Tests to Assess your Understanding
                        1. How to run a GAM model in R

                          Slide 11: Proxy data sources: Oceanic sediments

                          Duration: 00:01:03

                          Notes:

                          Calcareous plankton such as foraminifera and coccolithophores express preferential uptake of O18 under cool conditions. Through isotopic analysis of sedimentary deposits of these plankton, the temperature of the water at the time of deposition can be assessed. (Urey, 1948).

                          Species assemblages show variation in the number of warm- and cold-water plankton species. (Williams & Johnson, 1975)

                          Morphological variations are expressed by a number of species in response to climatic variables. (Kennett,1976).

                          The content of terrigeneous material in sediments corresponds to continental weathering. Consequently, the purity of the calcareous ooze gives a strong indication of the extent of weathering to which the continents were subjected, and therefore the intensity of the climatic processes. (Hays & Perruzza,1972).

                          The physical and chemical processes affecting inorganic sediments before deposition correspond to particular climate regimes, and are evidenced by the form of the inorganic sediments. (Kolla et al., 1979).


                          REFERENCES:
                          Hays, J.D. & Perruzza, A., 1972. The significance of calcium carbonate oscillations in eastern equitorial Atlantic deep-sea sediments for the end of the Holocene warm interval. Quat. Res., 2, pp. 335-362.

                          Kennett, J.P., 1976. Phenotypic variation in some recent and late Cenozoic planktonic foraminifera. In: Foraminifera, Vol. 2, Hedley, R.H. & Adams, C.G. (eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 111-170.

                          Kolla, V., Biscaye, P.E. & Hanley, A.F., 1979. Distribution of quartz in late Quaternary Atlantic sediments in relation to climate. Quat. Res., 11, pp. 261-277.

                          Urey, H.C., 1948. Oxygen isotopes in nature and in the laboratory. Science, 108, pp. 489-496.

                          Williams, D.F. & Johnson, W.C., 1975. Diversity of recent planktonic foraminifera in the southern Indian Ocean and late Pleistocene temperatures. Quat. Res., 5, pp. 237-250.