Slide 31 : Current trends II
A new trend, particularly in the communal areas is to see conservation as part of a community development initiative. This is often referred to as community-based natural resource management (CBNRM), and the idea is to link development and conservation through joint management efforts. This is happening in the conservation arena around game reserves, and also in the forestry arena around what is often referred to as joint forestry management. A common vehicle to achieve this is through community public private sector partnerships, for instance through private sector running a game lodge on communal land with joint profit sharing between the community and the private investor. A number of countries have national CBNRM programmes, such as the CAMPFIRE programme in Zimbabwe, and similar programmes in Botswana and Namibia. A similar trend is the formation of conservancies. As was pointed out earlier, the location of current conservation areas in southern Africa is anything but strategic. Currently there's a new trend towards strategic conservation planning, where complex computer models and facilitation is used to identify the best areas for conservation. In many cases this is supported through international funding, such as GEF funding, but in South Africa there are a number of current initiatives where strategic conservation is being considered. This includes the CAPE programme in the Fynbos, the SKEP programme on the Wild Coast and the STEP programme. There are a number of global trends impacting on conservation. One of the main ones is habitat fragmentation through land use transformation. This is particularly true for the high agricultural areas in the country. Global warming is also becoming a reality. As a consequence of global warming, many species will lose their current habitats, or their habitat will move in space to a new area. The current rate of global climatic change is far too fast for evolutionary adaptation.