Slide 11: The geosphere
This is the physical structure of the earth: the soil, rocks and sediments of the continental masses, the outer crust, and ultimately the earth's core.
Variations over tens to hundreds of millions of years are due to changes in internal energies of the earth.
Plate tectonics change the shape of the surface, and transform ocean basins or mountains, affecting energy transfers between coupled systems.
Physical and chemical processes affect soil structure, moisture availability and water runoff, as well as the flux of greenhouse gases and aerosols into the atmosphere.
Volcanism can emit vast quantities of CO2 from single events, as well as putting large amounts of aerosols into the atmosphere, which can reduce incoming radiation for several years. (Sear et al., 1987).
Sear, C.B., Kelly, P.M., Jones, P.D. & Goodess, C.M., 1987. Global surface-temperature responses to major volcanic eruptions. Nature, 330, pp. 365-367.