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Table of Contents

  1. Introduction: AIACC: Climate Change and Conservation Planning
    1. Chapter1: Evidence for climate change
      1. Chapter 2: Global circulation models
        1. Slide 1: Global Circulation Models - the basis for climate change science
        2. Slide 2: Weather prediction
        3. Slide 3: NWP vs climate models
        4. Slide 4: NWP vs climate models (cont)
        5. Slide 5: How does the climate work?
        6. Slide 6: The atmosphere I: vertical structure
        7. Slide 7: The atmosphere II: energy budget
        8. Slide 8: The atmosphere III: Horizontal transfers
        9. Slide 9: The oceans
        10. Slide 10: Biosphere
        11. Slide 11: The geosphere
        12. Slide 12 : Different types of climate models
        13. Slide 13: Energy balance models
        14. Slide 14: Radiative-convective models
        15. Slide 15: Statistical-dynamical models
        16. Slide 16: Global circulation models
        17. Slide 17: Contemporary GCMs: an outline
        18. Slide 18: Climatic processes modelled in a GCM
        19. Slide 19: Flux adjustments
        20. Slide 20: How many GCMs are there?
        21. Slide 21: Use of GCMs
        22. Slide 22: Climatic forcing
        23. Slide 23: The effects of current radiative forcings
        24. Slide 24: IPCC future scenarios
        25. Slide 25: Development scenarios (cont).
        26. Slide 26: Future radiative forcings depend on response
        27. Slide 27: GCM model responses
        28. Slide 28: GCM outputs for 2100 (I)
        29. Slide 29: GCM outputs for 2100 (II)
        30. Slide 30: Linear and non linear responses
        31. Slide 31: Examples of non-linear changes
        32. Slide 32: Conclusion
        33. Slide 33: Test yourself
        34. Slide 34 Links to other chapters
      2. Chapter 4: Biodiversity responses to past changes in climate
        1. Chapter 5: Adaptation of biodiversity to climate change
          1. Chapter 6: Approaches to niche-based modelling
            1. Chapter 7: Ecosystem function modelling
              1. Chapter 8: Climate change implications for conservation planning
                1. Chapter 9: The economic costs of conservation response options for climate change
                  1. Course Resources
                    1. Practical: Conservation for Climate Change
                      1. Tests to Assess your Understanding
                        1. How to run a GAM model in R

                          Slide 9: The oceans

                          Duration: 00:01:45


                          They are divided into two distinct layers:

                          The upper, seasonal layer of warm mixed water that stretches up to 100m deep in the tropics, and interacts with the atmosphere.

                          The lower deeps, which contain more than 80% of the water in the oceans.

                          The oceans are vital for the climate, because they hold far more energy than the atmosphere. This is because the oceans have a higher heat capacity (4.2 times that of air), and much higher density (1000 times more than air).

                          The seasonal layer alone contains more than 30 times as much energy as the entire atmosphere. Thus, a change in the energy of the climate system will affect the atmosphere 30 times more than the ocean. Clearly a very small perturbation of the oceanic system can affect the atmosphere in a large way.

                          Other heat transfers are through the evaporation of water vapour, which passes on its energy to the atmosphere when it condenses into clouds or precipitates.

                          Vertical energy transfer is largely at the poles - as sea water freezes, the salt remains in the unfrozen water, this dense saline water tends to sink to the bottom of the ocean despite it's relative warmth, and takes its energy with it.

                          Oceans also are involved in transfer of heat. Warm water flows towards the poles, raising the temperature of polar areas, and cold water flows below towards the tropics, carrying nutrients from the seabed.

                          The world therefore has extensive global thermohaline circulation, which has been hypothesized to drive millennia-long climate changes.