Skip to main content

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction: AIACC: Climate Change and Conservation Planning
    1. Chapter1: Evidence for climate change
      1. Slide 1: Introduction: the evidence for anthropogenic climate change
      2. Slide 2: Climate variation
      3. Slide 3 : Climate change
      4. Slide 4: What are we looking for?
      5. Slide 5: Sources of data - instrumental
      6. Slide 6: Temperature
      7. Slide 7: Palaeoclimate reconstruction from proxy data
      8. Slide 8: Palaeoclimatological time scale
      9. Slide 9: Proxy data sources: Ice cores
      10. Slide 10: Proxy data sources: Dendroclimatology
      11. Slide 11: Proxy data sources: Oceanic sediments
      12. Slide 12: Proxy data sources: Other
      13. Slide 13: The role of climate models
      14. Slide 14: Evidence for change
      15. Slide 15: Thermal indicators: Glacial melting
      16. Slide 16: Thermal indicators: Sea ice
      17. Slide 17: Thermal indicators: permafrost
      18. Slide 18: Thermal indicators: Sea level change
      19. Slide 19: Thermal indicators: Sea temperatures
      20. Slide 20: Is oceanic circulation changing?
      21. Slide 21: The greenhouse effect
      22. Slide 22: Climate change forcings
      23. Slide 23: Greenhouse gases: methane
      24. Slide 24: Greenhouse gases: nitrous oxide
      25. Slide 25: Greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide
      26. Slide 26: Greenhouse gases: others
      27. Slide 27: Aerosols
      28. Slide 28: Sulphates and nitrates
      29. Slide 29:Thermal indicators: global air temperature
      30. Slide 30: Changes in precipitation
      31. Slide 31: Climate change indicators: extreme weather
      32. Slide 32: Conclusions?
      33. Slide 33:Test yourself
      34. Slide 34: Links to other chapters
    2. Chapter 2: Global circulation models
      1. Chapter 4: Biodiversity responses to past changes in climate
        1. Chapter 5: Adaptation of biodiversity to climate change
          1. Chapter 6: Approaches to niche-based modelling
            1. Chapter 7: Ecosystem function modelling
              1. Chapter 8: Climate change implications for conservation planning
                1. Chapter 9: The economic costs of conservation response options for climate change
                  1. Course Resources
                    1. Practical: Conservation for Climate Change
                      1. Tests to Assess your Understanding
                        1. How to run a GAM model in R

                          Slide 26: Greenhouse gases: others

                          Duration: 00:01:20


                          There are a number of other greenhouse gases that we till touch upon briefly. Ozone plays an important role in reducing shortwave radiation influx by absorbing primarily ultraviolet light in the upper atmosphere, using the energy to spontaneously break up and re-form (Chapman, 1930). However, in the lower atmosphere ozone is a pollutant and a greenhouse gas

                          The catalytic action of nitrous oxides, halocarbons and hydroxl ions (OH-) in the stratosphere catalytically destroys large quantities of ozone, thereby increasing solar radiation. As well as increasing the rate of global warming, this action has the effect of increasing the incidence of shortwave radiation-induced mutations in many forms of life.

                          Halocarbons (CFCs and HCFCs), apart from destroying ozone in the upper atmosphere, are very strong greenhouse gases (thousands of times stronger than CO2) (IPCC, 1990). Furthermore, they are highly stable, taking decades to centuries to break down.

                          These gases are entirely manufactured. They are primarily used as propellants for deodorants and other spray cans, and in refrigeration and air-conditioners. As such, their effect has only been observed in the last century, with a climatic forcing rising from nothing in 1900 to 0.202 Wm-2 in 1990.


                          Chapman, S., 1930. A theory of upper atmospheric ozone. Quar. J. Royal Met. Soc., 3, pp. 103.

                          Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 1990. Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment, Houghton, J.T., Jenkins, G.J. & Ephraums, J.J. (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 365pp.