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Table of Contents

  1. Introduction: AIACC: Climate Change and Conservation Planning
    1. Chapter1: Evidence for climate change
      1. Slide 1: Introduction: the evidence for anthropogenic climate change
      2. Slide 2: Climate variation
      3. Slide 3 : Climate change
      4. Slide 4: What are we looking for?
      5. Slide 5: Sources of data - instrumental
      6. Slide 6: Temperature
      7. Slide 7: Palaeoclimate reconstruction from proxy data
      8. Slide 8: Palaeoclimatological time scale
      9. Slide 9: Proxy data sources: Ice cores
      10. Slide 10: Proxy data sources: Dendroclimatology
      11. Slide 11: Proxy data sources: Oceanic sediments
      12. Slide 12: Proxy data sources: Other
      13. Slide 13: The role of climate models
      14. Slide 14: Evidence for change
      15. Slide 15: Thermal indicators: Glacial melting
      16. Slide 16: Thermal indicators: Sea ice
      17. Slide 17: Thermal indicators: permafrost
      18. Slide 18: Thermal indicators: Sea level change
      19. Slide 19: Thermal indicators: Sea temperatures
      20. Slide 20: Is oceanic circulation changing?
      21. Slide 21: The greenhouse effect
      22. Slide 22: Climate change forcings
      23. Slide 23: Greenhouse gases: methane
      24. Slide 24: Greenhouse gases: nitrous oxide
      25. Slide 25: Greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide
      26. Slide 26: Greenhouse gases: others
      27. Slide 27: Aerosols
      28. Slide 28: Sulphates and nitrates
      29. Slide 29:Thermal indicators: global air temperature
      30. Slide 30: Changes in precipitation
      31. Slide 31: Climate change indicators: extreme weather
      32. Slide 32: Conclusions?
      33. Slide 33:Test yourself
      34. Slide 34: Links to other chapters
    2. Chapter 2: Global circulation models
      1. Chapter 4: Biodiversity responses to past changes in climate
        1. Chapter 5: Adaptation of biodiversity to climate change
          1. Chapter 6: Approaches to niche-based modelling
            1. Chapter 7: Ecosystem function modelling
              1. Chapter 8: Climate change implications for conservation planning
                1. Chapter 9: The economic costs of conservation response options for climate change
                  1. Course Resources
                    1. Practical: Conservation for Climate Change
                      1. Tests to Assess your Understanding
                        1. How to run a GAM model in R

                          Slide 19: Thermal indicators: Sea temperatures

                          Duration: 00:01:22


                          Sea temperatures have been gradually increasing worldwide.

                          Measurements in the 19th century were somewhat inaccurate due to the leaky buckets in which deep water was gathered, but a correction factor used in the calculation of these temperatures shows them to be relatively consistent in the extent of this error, which can hence be eliminated.

                          Immediate effects of global sea temperature rise will include a change in the capacity of seawater to absorb CO2, reducing its capacity as a carbon sink.

                          Long term concerns of such a trend include the shutting down or movement of oceanic currents such as the thermohaline "conveyor belt", ironically reducing air temperature in polar areas which are currently warmed by the current. Places such as Britain, which is dependent on the Gulf stream for its current climate, may drop in temperature by as much as 3 degrees, although this effect is very localised.

                          More importantly, the deep saline currents provide many nutrients for surface ecosystems fed by plankton. A reduction in oceanic plankton will limit another important carbon sink, since many species use atmospheric carbon in the formation of their carbonate shells, and subsequently remove the carbon from the climate when they die and sink to the ocean bottom. It may also cause a crash in oceanic biodiversity, since plankton are the oceans main primary producers, and hence the bottom of the food chain.